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The Bleaching and Dyeing Process of the Paithani

- Vat Dyes and acid dyes are used because of ease of availability, comparative cheapness and favourable properties in dyeing.

- Bleaching and dyeing is done in copper vessels. 20 to 30 grams of dye powder is used per kg of yarn, which is mixed in water.

- Acid is used for fixation. Coconut oil is used to give a soft finish to silk.

- The yarns are dipped in the dye bath for 30 to 40 minutes using copper rods.

- They are then removed, washed a few times in water and then squeezed. The yarn is then dried in the shade.


1. Procurement of raw material- silk and zari yarn.

2. Pre processing and dyeing of yarn (done at dyers place)

a. The raw silk is first untied.

b. A sticky substance is naturally present on the yarn which is removed by scouring it.

c. The yarn is then dyed in required colours by hot water dying.

3. Making of warp yarn spool (wagi)

4. Winding of small weft yarn spools (kandi) using cycle charkha.

5. Setting the warp on looms.

a. Tying the warp spool in its place.

b. Taking the warp on warp beam in sections as separate threads.

c. Setting up dobby according to border design.

d. Setting up jacquard according to motifs in body of saree.

e. Fixing punch cards in jacquard attachment.

f. Threading the yarns through the jacquard heddles for motifs, dobby heddles for border.

g. Threading the threads through heddles of fly shuttle loom.

h. Taking the yarns forward from the reed.

i. Attaching tensions to the yarn packages.

j. Tying the threads to an iron rod and cloth beam.

k. Let off and taking up of yarn on loom.