Manufacturing processes

1. The kali/vakhar is brought from Bangalore which is a bundle of silk threads ultimately known as one thok. The weavers of Yeola themselves dye the yarn.

2. The raw material is dipped in hot water and diluted in khar (salt), for about 15 mins.

3. The material is then squeezed by putting a rod in between the kali to remove the excess of impurities and again dipped in cold water for about 2-3 times.

4. The dye bath is prepared in which the proportion varies according to the hues and shapes.

5. Vat dyes and acid dyes are used because of their favorable properties. The government provides a shade card of 400 plus samples, which acts as a collection for the buyer to choose from.

6. Bleaching and dyeing is done in copper vessels. 20 to 30 grams of dye powder is used per kg of yarn, which is mixed in water. Acid is used for fixation. Coconut oil is used to give a soft finish to silk. The yarns are dipped in the dye bath for 30 to 40 minutes using copper rods. It is then removed, washed a few times in water and then squeezed. The yarn is dried in the shade.

7. The kali is dipped in the dye bath, removed, and dried completely. This is repeated 2 to 3 times.

8. It is then washed in cold water to make it much smoother and lustrous.

9. After the dyeing process is completed, the silk threads are wounded upon the Asari with a very smooth touch which is done by the women. A Rahat was also used for wounding but since it was very much time consuming, they started using machines made up of a cycle wheel which is less time consuming.

10. From the asari, the silk threads are transferred on a kandi.

11. The silk threads are finally set onto the loom.

Traditional colours

The dominant traditional colours of vegetable dyes included:

• Pophali - yellow

• Red

• Lavender

• Purple

• Neeligunji - sky blue

• Magenta

• Motiya - peach pink

• Brinjal - purple

• Pearl pink

• Peacock - blue/green

• Yellowish green

• Kusumbi - violet red

• Pasila - red and green

• Gujri - black and white

• Mirani - black and red


It takes approximately one day to set the silk threads on the loom.

"Tansal" is used to put the "wagi".

The "pavda" works like the paddle to speed up the weaving.

The "jhatka" is used to push the "kandi" from one side to the other.

"Pushthe" is used in designing the border of Paithani in which it is punched according to design application.

"Pagey" are tied to the loom. The threads are then passed through "fani".

There are two types of motion:

Primary motions:

1. Shedding — dividing the warp sheet or shed into two layers, one above the other for the passage of shuttle with the weft threads.

2. Picking — passing a pick of weft from one selvage of a cloth through the warp threads.

3. Beating — dividing the last pick through the fell of cloth with the help of slay fixed on the reel.

Secondary motions:

1. Take up motion — taking up the cloth when being woven and winding it on the roller.

2. Let off motion — letting the warp wound on a warp beam, when the cloth is taken up on the cloth roller beam.

Taking up and letting off the warp are done simultaneously.